Our lab has had a long standing interest in NE cells, which comprise a minor component of epithelial cells in benign prostate and adenocarcinoma. These cells lack androgen receptor and are independent of androgen.
http://muchmore.be/un-cuento-matemtico.php As a result, they survive hormonal therapy and are enriched after hormonal therapy. Since the NE cells secrete biogenic amines, neuropeptides and cytokines while the bulk, non-NE tumor cells express receptor for many of these products, it has been proposed that a paracrine network is established after hormonal therapy by which the NE tumor cells stimulate the proliferation of the bulk tumor cells in an androgen-deprived environment. This may contribute to tumor progression to the castration-resistant stage. We are actively testing this hypothesis using various tumor models.
Biomarkers for prostate cancer. Widespread use of PSA screening leads to approximately 1 million prostate biopsies a year. Because of the poor specificity of PSA, only about 1 in 4 patients with PSA in the grey zone will have cancer on biopsy. Since the two possibilities cannot be accurately distinguished, all men with elevated PSA and negative biopsies will be subject to repeat PSA tests and biopsies, resulting in unnecessary pain, anxiety and expense in many men without risk of prostate cancer.
We are actively working on finding biomarkers in the negative biopsy tissue to predict the likelihood of harboring unsampled cancer in these patients. NJ: Humana Press, Child, family and relationship services. Disability services. Emergency, crisis and support services. End of life and palliative care services.
The Kidney. A Comprehensive Guide to Pathologic Diagnosis and Management. Editors: Hansel, D.E., Kane, C.J., Paner, G.P., Chang, S.S. (Eds.) Free Preview. The most popular ebook you must read is The Kidney A Comprehensive Guide To Pathologic Diagnosis. And Management. You can Free download it to your.
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Podcast Podcast. Kidney disease Share show more.
Listen show more. More show more. Tags: Kidney and bladder Kidney and bladder - Kidney and bladder basics. You can look after your kidneys by eating healthy food, staying active and maintaining a healthy weight. Many diseases can affect your kidneys. In most cases, early diagnosis and good management can prevent a condition from worsening and reduce the risk of kidney failure.
What is kidney disease?
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Some signs and symptoms include: a change in the frequency and quantity of urine you pass, especially at night usually an increase at first blood in your urine haematuria changes in the appearance of your urine puffiness around your legs and ankles oedema pain in your back under the lower ribs, where the kidneys are located pain or burning when you pass urine high blood pressure.
Treatment for kidney disease If detected early enough, the progress of kidney disease can be slowed and sometimes even prevented.
High blood pressure and kidney disease H igh blood pressure hypertension is increased pressure inside the arteries that carry blood from your heart to all parts of your body. Diabetes and kidney disease About 20 to 30 per cent of people with diabetes develop a type of kidney disease called diabetic nephropathy. Kidney disease and cardiovascular risks Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with chronic ongoing kidney disease.
Compared to the general population, people with chronic kidney disease are two to three times more likely to have cardiovascular heart and blood vessel problems such as: angina heart attack stroke heart failure. Kidney disease increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in many ways, including: high blood pressure — the kidneys help to regulate blood pressure by producing a hormone called renin.
They also help to regulate the amount of salt and fluid in the body heart strain — holding excess fluid in the body puts strain on the heart and increases the risk of complications such as left ventricular hypertrophy enlarged left heart chamber , which can cause heart failure stiff arteries — kidneys make a hormone that helps to regulate the use of calcium throughout the body.
A person with chronic kidney disease may develop calcified stiffened arteries and heart valves, perhaps caused by hormones not being produced efficiently increased blood fats hyperlipidaemia — some people with chronic kidney disease have increased levels of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, which may be caused by disturbed hormone levels.
High levels of LDL cholesterol is a known risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease blood clots — the blood of people with some types of chronic kidney disease, and those with kidney failure, is prone to clotting. A clot thrombus lodged within a blood vessel may cut off the blood supply. This increases the risk of many complications, including heart attack and stroke.
A clot in one of the kidney arteries may cause high blood pressure. Diagnosis of kidney disease Early diagnosis and optimal management can often prevent kidney damage from becoming worse and reduce the risk of kidney failure.
Tests for kidney disease include: urine tests blood tests blood pressure test imaging biopsy. Blood tests for kidney disease The best measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate GFR , which can be estimated from a blood test that checks the blood for creatinine a waste product made by muscle tissue.
Ultrasound may be used to check the size of the kidneys. Biopsy for kidney disease A biopsy means that a small piece of tissue is taken for testing in a laboratory. Biopsies used in the investigation of kidney disease may include: kidney biopsy — the doctor inserts a special needle into the back, under local anaesthesia, to obtain a small sample of kidney tissue. A kidney biopsy can confirm a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.
This allows the doctor to view the inside of the bladder and check for abnormalities. This procedure is called a cystoscopy. The doctor may take a biopsy of bladder tissue for examination in a laboratory. Your doctor may arrange other tests, depending on the suspected cause of your kidney disorder. Prevention of kidney disease Medication and changes to lifestyle, along with an early referral to a kidney specialist nephrologist , can prevent or delay kidney failure.
Eat lean meat such as chicken and fish each week. Eat only small amounts of salty or fatty food. Drink plenty of water instead of other drinks.
Minimise consumption of sugary soft drinks. Maintain a healthy weight. Stay fit. Do at least 30 minutes of physical activity that increases your heart rate on five or more days of the week, including walking, lawn mowing, bike riding, swimming or gentle aerobics. If you do, quit. Call the Quitline or ask your doctor for help with quitting. Limit your alcohol to no more than two small drinks per day if you are male, or one small drink per day if you are female.
Have your blood pressure checked regularly. Do things that help you relax and reduce your stress levels. Chronic kidney disease , Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease — Australian facts: risk factors , , Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Send us your feedback. Rate this website Your comments Questions Your details. Excellent Good Average Fair Poor.
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