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You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. No abstract is available for this article. Citing Literature. Public health policy seeks to better eating practices and promote physical activity. We offer results from Cuentepec, a small and highly marginalized nahuatl speaking community in the State of Morelos. We applied a questionnaire to students between 9 and 18 years of age, exploring: a the three foods that they enjoy the most; b what they had really eaten before and during their stay in school.
Their preferences are varied, and include products that are inadequate for their health. We found discrepancies between what they prefer and what they consume.
This has implications for public health policies. Complementary or weaning foods are needed, and societies around the World have chosen some, that may have advantages and could be used in other places. This is the case of atole, a nutritive beverage made from maize that has been used since remote times to feed babies.
It has the advantage of allowing other products to be added and enhance its nutritional qualities. We will offer evidence of its quality. In recent decades, there has been substantial progress in the study of Early Childhood Development ECD from interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspectives. Several authors acknowledge the contribution of Anthropology to the debate about ECD, in dialogue with psychology, neuroscience, education and medicine.
These studies stress the importance of social contexts in regard to physical growth and later health issues. In this sense, the importance given to the environment from an ecological perspective recognises the heuristic value of ethnographic studies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the possibilities of interface between ethnography and disciplines that have traditionally studied childhood development. First, we review the existing disciplinary production in this field in Latin America, focussing on indigenous and peasant societies.
Second, we analyze the main contributions ethnography can make in methodological terms. In relation to this, we discuss the challenges it faces in the context of interdisciplinary research. To conclude, we would reflect on the need to recover the ECD as an object of ethnographic study, as it was in the beginning of the discipline. These cultures offer insights into the diverse cultures of children, and their societies, and function as sites for analyzing constructions of childhoods.
This panel looks at the cultures of migrant children, and engages with the conceptions, contestations, and negotiations of immigrant childhood cultures in their varied possibilities: production, consumption, performance, and embodiment. Migrant children employ various urban spaces, services for their support, along with institutional and familial ideologies, only to deploy new cultural practices in popular culture, food, dress, language, peer groups, writings, and other material, spatial, and literary forms.
This panel aims to look at the ways in which migration gives rise to diverse childhood cultures — lived and ideological — across international immigration movements of children and youth.
Strange Reciprocity: Mainstreaming Women's Work in Tepoztlán in the “Decade of the New Economy”, by Sidney S. Perutz. Strange Reciprocity: Mainstreaming Women's Work in Tepoztlán in the “Decade of the New Economy”, by Sidney S. Perutz. Lanham, MD.
Diverse approaches and methods of exploration of these cultures, in varied texts, and across historical time periods and regions, are especially welcome on this panel. Lancy provides an overview of how children in traditional societies routinely learn their chores, whereas children of contemporary elite societies develop only little sense of responsibility. The panel presenter s have provided the data from various cultural communities: Seymour provides data for children from Bhubaneswar, India, that demonstrate differences in the development of responsibility by socio-econiomic status and gender.
Waterson focuses on Toraja children of Sulawesi, Indonesia, where children are supposed to participate in ceremonies. Otto and Keller combine interviews and everyday observations to show what kind of responsibilities Cameroonian Nso children are expected to assume. De Leon studied Mayan socialization practices and found low frequencies of maternal directives; instead, Mayan children are found to be active and responsible observers.
Three categories of responsibility are analyzed: 1 instrumental tasks such as helping with childcare, cooking, or running errands; 2 hospitality—learning to greet and attend to guests; and 3 doing homework so as to benefit the family by performing well in school and getting desirable jobs. The study is based upon a sample of children from twenty-four households—half in the old temple town Old Town and half in the new capital city New Capital. Significant differences were found by residence, status, and gender. The Toraja of Sulawesi, Indonesia, are renowned for their elaborate ceremonies, particularly funerals.
The value of livestock has inflated wildly throughout the C20th. Yet the social commitment to the sacrifice of animals at funerals remains undiminished, and many adults take great pride in it. Children, as the next generation, can therefore expect to inherit remarkably heavy obligations. How do children learn about their expected roles in this system, and the values which adults claim it embodies?
In , I asked children in Toraja schools to write and draw about their ritual experiences, and to describe how they saw their future ceremonial responsibilities as adults. Their answers reveal their developing perceptions of Toraja ritual life.
They reflect tensions also felt by adults between the social expectation of high ceremonial expenditure, and the need to meet other costs such as educational fees. They also demonstrate a self-conscious sense of Toraja identity, as invested in the performance of rituals. We investigate maternal conceptions concerning the development of responsibility in Cameroonian Nso mothers. We conducted interviews with Nso mothers, focusing on the daily responsibilities children are supposed to assume. Our results show that children are from early on supposed to take individual responsibilities; however, boys and girls are clearly expected to assume different responsibilities.
Our results are confirmed by ethnographic observations: Nso children are caretakers for younger siblings, they run errands, fetch wood and help in the household. We collected data about caregiver-child interactions and classified caregiver directives and child responses into several categories. These strategies form the distinctive types of communicative competence in Japanese caregiver-child interactions and are also induced by the structural requirements of conversational settings, which rest primarily on universal elements.
In studying the ways families co-construct mutual orientation in joint activities, directive-response sequences are central Goodwin In this paper, I explore how Mayan ideologies and practices of socialization emerge in everyday family life through directive sequences. In contrast to middle-class Western families where parental directives are central in the accomplishment of everyday chores, Mayan children learn to undertake active observation within an ethos of responsibility.
The study is based on three decades of anthropological and linguistic research in the Tzotzil Mayan town of Zinacantan, Chiapas Mexico. Santander Malabanan. Syracuse University rsmalaba syr. This panel examines the interplay between children and youth and the venues in which they spend significant time: schools and classrooms. As formal education becomes part of an increasing number of children's lives throughout the world, we need to look critically at the effect of schools and classrooms on how children and youth conceptualize themselves and others. Schools are typically established to perpetuate the existing social and cultural power dynamic, a dynamic that benefits some children and disadvantages those who bring different social and cultural expectations to school.
On the surface, schools appear to be great equalizers by providing a common curriculum for all students, but in reality, the curriculum across schools is far from common, giving poor, rural, immigrant, and disadvantaged students the allusion of equity, while in reality they are learning much less than their more advantaged peers. This learning takes place as students interact with peers, teachers, and the larger school system.
Key to developing a positive sense of self, children must believe that they are capable of accomplishing challenging tasks, that they belong in and contribute to a social group, and that they are capable of being engaged in meaningful work. A positive sense of accomplishment, belonging, and engagement is critical to success in school and other aspects of life because it helps children persevere when work is difficult, engage peacefully and productively with peers, and maintain focus on tasks.
All men were compelled to enlist or flee, but memoirs and interviews suggest that numerous women stayed on: some to care for those unable to withstand evacuation, others to protect property. English Grammar. Exhibitions Of Impressionist Art. Anne Frank's Diary--a Hoax. And since the aspects of material culture carried from one people to another by such means are the most easily discernible of all traits, this problem is one which, not only because of its promise, but because of its methodological practicability, deserves attention on the part of students. Here she describes the punishing costs of maximizing flexibility by minimizing job quality: I came here because it is a safer place for Julio; and seemed to offer the right part-time jobs.
It examines the effects of teacher perceptions, peer interactions, classroom instruction, and alternative programs, such as yoga practice, on how children view themselves.